Links & Descriptions
for Selected Papers
Symbiosis in Oxidation Ponds. I. Growth Characteristics
of Euglena gracilis Cultured in Sewage," with
H.F. Ludwig, H.B. Gotaas and V. Lynch. Sewage and Industrial
Wastes 23:11, (November 1951).
Symbiosis in Oxidation Ponds. II. Growth Characteristics
of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Cultured in Sewage," with
H.B. Gotaas, H.F. Ludwig and V. Lynch. Reprinted in Sewage
and Industrial Wastes 25:1, (January 1953).
Symbiosis in Oxidation Ponds. III. Photosynthetic Oxygenation," with
H.B. Gotaas, H.F. Ludwig and V. Lynch. Sewage and
Industrial Wastes 25:6, (June 1953).
Prescott Eddy Medal was awarded by the Water Pollution Control
Federation for the final paper in this series of three. These
papers were the first to determine the oxygen yield of algae
grown in sewage. Previously, the role of algae in wastewater
treatment ponds was anecdotal, and designs were entirely empirical. In
addition to oxygen yield, Papers I and II show the relationships
of BOD loading and culture age on the chlorophyll content of
Paper III defines “photosynthetic
oxygenation” in contrast with mechanical aeration, defines “algal-bacterial
symbiosis” in sewage ponds, and promotes the idea of
integration of the bacterial and algal zones of sewage ponds
via recirculation. The paper shows the effect of light
intensity on algae yield and on the content in algae of chlorophyll,
carbohydrates, lipids, protein, inert solids, C, H, N, and
P. Oxygen production is characterized in terms of light
intensity, BOD loading, and hydraulic residence time. The
treatment improvements due to optimization of light, temperature,
nutrients, and BOD are discussed. These three data-dense
papers considerably advanced the understanding of treatment
in Sewage Treatment," with H.B. Gotaas. Paper presented
before the Sanitary Engineering Division, American Society
of Civil Engineers, New York, N.Y., (October 1954). Reprinted
in Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers,
Volume 122, (1957).
both the Rudolf Hering Medal and the James Croes Medal for
this paper which described part of Dr. Oswald’s dissertation
work. The paper introduces idea of using algae as a means
to recover nutrients from sewage and the fix solar energy. New
design equations for algae culture systems and a new pond classification
method are described. The diagram of algal-bacterial
symbiosis, adapted by many authors since, is first published,
and the idea of protein production by waste-grown algae is
Coming Industry of Controlled Photosynthesis." American
Journal of Public Health 52:2, (February 1962).
vital role of photosynthesis in civilization and “controlled
photosynthesis” as a means to improve human welfare.
Ecological Systems," with C.G. Golueke. Journal
of the Sanitary Engineering Division 91:SA4, (August 1965).
ASCE gave Oswald
and Golueke the Arthur M. Wellington Award for this paper that
summarizes several years of innovative research on life support
systems designed for space stations and Mars voyages. The
paper demonstrates the need for extensive on-board water recycling
due to the difficulty in launching enough water for long voyages;
uses human metabolic and physiological information to calculate
the required rate of recycling of water, oxygen, and carbon
dioxide; and describes the “Microterella,” a self-regulating,
algal-bacterial system that supported mice in a semi-closed
environment for over six weeks. Also described is a similar
device scaled-up for human use and for zero-gravity environments,
called the “Algatron.” It converted wastewater
into distilled water, absorbed carbon dioxide, produced oxygen,
and controlled capsule humidity and overall capsule spin rate. A
conceptual design for installation of dual Algatrons in a C-5
rocket is shown.
Trends in the United States - A Problem?," with C.G. Golueke. Paper
presented before the Water Pollution Control Federation, Atlantic City,
New Jersey, (October 11, 1965). Reprinted in Journal of
the Water Pollution Control Federation, 38:6, (June 1966).
the ecological concept of a “Nutrient Shed” as
a motivation for nutrient recycling; describes the developing
Algae Growth Potential assay, now a standard procedure in water
Pond Systems for Subdivisions," with C.G. Golueke and
R.W. Tyler. Paper presented before Section 21 of
the 39th Annual Meeting of the Water Pollution Control Federation,
Kansas City, Missouri, (September 29, 1966). Reprinted
in Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 39:8,
the design of wastewater treatment ponds as attractive features
of community parks; promotes the concept of decentralized wastewater
System for Poultry Wastes," with G.L. Dugan and C.G. Golueke. Journal
of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 44:3, p. 432,
development and field tests of a more sustainable poultry production
method. Methane is produced by manure digestion;
digester supernatant is used as algae growth medium; and harvested
algae become a protein-rich feed supplement for the chickens. Finally,
treated water become recycled pen flush water to complete the
Algal Regenerative System for Single-Family Farms and Villages," with
C.G. Golueke. Compost Science Journal of Waste Recycling,
audience article describes a system for rural households that
integrated water supply, sanitation, biogas production for
light and heat, and animal production. Adapted from research
reports and illustrated with architectural drawings.
Production by Microbial Photosynthesis," with J.R. Benemann,
J.C. Weissman, and B.L. Koopman, Nature, 268:19-23,
practical and scientific aspects of energy and fertilizer production
from algal-bacterial waste treatment systems. Outlines
Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems," In: Supplying
Water and Saving the Environment for Six Billion People, Proceedings
of the 1990 ASCE Env. Eng. Div. Conf., eds. U.P. Singh
and O.J. Helweg, Amer. Soc. Civil Eng., 345 East 47th St.,
New York, NY 10017-2398, (November 1990).
and defines the Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond System
as a series consisting of an Advanced Facultative Pond with
sludge digestion pits, High Rate Ponds, Algae Settling Ponds,
and Maturation Ponds.
in the Twenty-first Century." Keynote Address at
the Second IAWQ International Specialist Conference on Waste
Stabilization Ponds and the Reuse of Pond Effluents, November
30-December 3, 1993, Berkeley, California. Reprinted in Water
Science and Technology, Vol. 31, No. 12, pp. 1-8, (1995)
considers population growth, resource depletion and options
for algal protein production on marginal and salinized croplands.
of Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems" with F.B.
Green, and T.J. Lundquist. Water Science and
Technology, Vol. 31, No. 12, pp. 9-20, (1995).
Fermentation, Submerged Gas Collection, and the Fate of Carbon
in Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems" with F.B.
Green, L. Bernstone, T.J. Lundquist, J. Muir, and R.B. Tresan. Water
Science and Technology, Vol. 31, No. 12, pp.55-65, (1995).
These two articles
describe a submerged biogas collection apparatus and compare
the energy intensity of pond systems to several mechanical
Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems for Nitrogen Removal,” with
F.B. Green, T.J. Lundquist, and L.S. Bernstone. Water Science
and Technology, Vol. 33, No. 7, pp. 207-217 (1996).
many mechanisms of nitrogen control in
pond systems including heterotrophic nitrification-denitrification.
Sixty Years in Applied Algology.” Keynote address, Ninth
International Conference on Applied Algology. May 26-31, 2002,
Almeria, Spain. Reprinted in.Journal of Applied Phycology,
Vol. 15, No. 99, pp. 99-106 (2002).
Oswald’s career path and his goals for the future of
applied phycology and sustainable wastewater treatment.
to the topics in the above works, Professor Oswald also published
on a wide variety of other topics, such as the following:
- Detection of microbial populations in the upper atmosphere
- The production, capture, and use of biogas from livestock
manure treatment ponds
- Remote sensing characterization of algae blooms in
natural water bodies
- The mechanical harvesting of algae from natural water
- Food-grade algae production and product quality control
- Single cell protein production
- The effect of phosphate detergents on receiving waters
- The control and beneficial use of thermal discharges
such as those from power plants
- The transformations and removal of selenium compounds
in agricultural drainage water
- Reverse osmosis for reclamation of wastewater and for
production of useful brines
- Algae harvesting methods
- Industrial waste treatment: canneries, sugar factories, tanneries, oil refineries, slaughterhouses,